Thank you for reaching out to the Constant Contact Community. I hope you are well today.
That's a great question. While there isn't a way to automatically trigger a survey to immediately appear based on how the poll response is selected at this time, you could move the contacts to a list after the reporting comes back on the poll question and then send the survey in a new email. So once you have the email reporting back, you would access the Poll Responses and then export those responses and add them to a list. Then you would create and send the survey invitation to that list.
If you have further questions, please feel free to reach out. We are always happy to help.